Critical Analysis Essay Essay The media throughout the world has been in the frontline in educating members of the public on important social issues ranging from politics, drugs, terrorism, and popular music to sports. The best of all is the fight against AIDS. AIDS is one of the diseases which is threatening the existence of humanity and therefore more initiatives are being developed to fight it. In addition to videos, movies, plays and advertisements in sportsâ€™ and entertainment channels, songs have been composed by some artistes to try and spread the message to among other people, the youth who are of high risk of contracting the disease. These songs are played in the AM and FM radio stations throughout the world (Emad, 2006). This paper will discuss the representation of AIDS in songs which are played in our radio stations. It will also analyze its representations through advertisement on various entertainment and sporting channels such as MTV and VH1. It will finally analyze the importance the songs and advertisement channels have on the eradicating the disease. Songs about AIDS Social marketers have been trying to have more people get informed on the basic of HIV/AIDS. See more: how to write a critical analysis outline Some of the countries have encouraged the use of such channels as MTV to spread the fight against the disease and where they have been successful, the prevalence rates have been low. In the recent past, more musicians have been dieing of AIDS and that is why some of their colleagues are trying to come up with songs to not only make their partners aware but also educate the public on the crisis. In the U. S, an organization- The Estate Project- which was launched some years back as an Aids awareness initiative is now getting popularly with it programs. The main mission of this organization, just like other radio stations is to compile the musical works of artistes who have died of the disease and inform the public. It also aims to preserve the cultural legacy of the crisis (Emad, 2006). In the U. S for example, many artistes have composed songs to promote programs intended to fight the scourge. Examples of these songs are; â€˜HIV bluesâ€™ by Kerry Stevens from the album â€˜out in the countryâ€™ and â€˜positiveâ€™ by Spears Jay from the album â€˜family valuesâ€™. These and other songs contain messages on how to keep safe from the disease or remain health if you are infected. These songs especially those by well known artistes in the U. S and Europe can be very attractive to the youth. Likewise, the Federal government has also developed policies which require that all organizations including the media houses and musicians help it fight the pandemic. Some songs have specifically been composed to pass messages on the use of condoms. The condoms are considered one of the strategies that help in preventing people from having unsafe sex. The songs when played in the radio stationed will help pass information to the young people who may not have access to the information elsewhere. â€˜Sauti ya Americaâ€™ is one of the radio stations broadcasting from the U. S to many of the African countries and it uses its superiority and quality of transmission to educate the Africans on the seriousness of the crisis and it also tries to provide suggestions on how the youth can stay health. Many of the young people in the world today and especially those in third world countries donâ€™t have the accurate and correct information about AIDS. In rural areas where the information on the diseases is limited, more youth are engaging in unprotected sex. Research has suggested that the youth can easily receive information on the disease through advertisements Advertisements Entertainment channels such as MTV has noticed that there is information deficiency in the society. Through its music shows featuring the best artistes not only in America but also in Europe, the entertainment channels aim at passing important social issues to its fans. The programs are then broadcasted to countries in Africa and Europe. These programs are needed to develop the penchant for advocacy in the music industry with an objective of political and social motivation. The entertainment channels help the organizations fighting against AIDS to build some sort of cohesion between the facts about the disease and the myths that people believe concerning AIDS (Johnson, 2005). The whole process of representation in songs started in the late 1980s when AIDS in the U. S became a pandemic and the federal government decided to bring the issue of HIV/AIDS to a situation where people must decide and publicly accept the reality about the disease. The songs and the advertisements stations had a role to play and the role at that point in time did not have sufficient knowledge to combat the spread of the disease. VHI for example allocates more of its resources such as time and money to educative materials and talk shows. It uses its extensive radio frequencies to reach and educate most of its fans on the facts about AIDS. VH1 has through its programs such as the â€˜legendâ€™ and â€˜celebâ€™ shows, promoted the â€œkick outâ€ campaign. The campaign had been founded by the Rogers family to help U. S citizens change their lifestyles and accept the fact that people should abandon form sex still they are married. This program and others including its international channels in more than twenty countries are able to reach a wider population hence are in a position to convince and attract listeners. The amount of space and airtime which is being devoted to the fight against HIV/AIDS has increased in the recent past mainly because of the global concerns which are being addressed by our world leaders including the U. S president who has devoted most of the federal funds to fighting the scourge in third world countries. Today, more often than not, you can see that the radio stations are covering the issue with a certain perspective not just for the matter of reporting. More and more radio stations are analyzing the issue for a positive point of view compared to the past when they only reported statistics (Johnson, 2005). FM and AM stations are now looking at issues such as preventing child-mother transmission, treatment, testing, orphans and vulnerable members of the society etc. These are the real issues that affect the society; not just mentioning which of the artists is riding high in music, what did politicians say about the spread of AIDS in Texas, who pronounced what and such sort of things. Conclusion Entertainment channels such as MTV and VH1have the main players in the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS. The main aim of using such entertainment and music stations is to reach a majority of the youth who are mostly attracted to the music and programs in these stations. Songs on its part has a role to play especially if they contain the messages which encourage people to protect themselves from the disease. The management of such institutions should therefore promote the culture of teaching members of the public on the dangers of contracting HIV/AIDS through their daily programs. References Emad, R. (2006): Role of journalists: Journalists Speak at 18th Annual National, Managed Health Care Congress, UK Johnson, A. (2005): Fighting AIDS through the Media. New York Press, New York
The Etruscans The Etruscan civilisation is distinguished by its unique language and its beautiful art. The Etruscan economy was based on agriculture, trade and mineral resources. We also know the greeks traded with the Etruscans because the Etruscan alphabet is similar to the greek one. The Etruscans are thought to have either been â€œnativeâ€ to Italy or to have migrated from Lydia Lydia ina round 800bc beause of famine. Etruscan cities were very powerful and were though to have been ruled by â€œThe Etruscan Leagueâ€ which was (according to roman legend) founded by two Lydian noblemen; Tarchun and his brother Tyrrhenus.The league was made up of 12 cities but which twelve exactly is unsure. Each city state met once a year where a leader was chosen to represent the league. The league was both religious and political. Etruscan homes were mud-brick, with timber on stone foundations, some with upper stories. Some etruscns even had underground drains leading to main sewage drains located under the streets! Etruscans did a lot of farming, they grew barley, millet, wheat, grapes and other fruits and they raised pigs, goats, sheep, ducks, chickens and cattle. Cattle was used for food and to pull plows and wagons.Etruscan miners dug copper, lead, iron and tin. Metal workers and sculptors turned metals into weapons, utensils, jewellery and sculpture. Etruscans were famous for their art, especially in bronze and clay. Etruscans also enjoyed many forms of entertainment including gambling with ivory dice, music and dancing (for religious reasons and pleasure), playing board games similar to chess and backgammon and watching ant taking part in sports. Etruscans traded goods and metals with the Greeks, Carthage, Syria and many other Mediterranean countries. Merchants traded for luxury items like gold, silver and ivory.Etruscans were also very religious, much like many other tribes of the ancient world. Their religion was deeply influenced by eastern greeks, as was etruscan art. Etruscans had special training institutes to teach their religion and their complex curricula included not only religious laws and theology but also the encyclopaedic knowledge required by the presets, which ranged from astrology to zoology and geology. Etruscans had many gods, whom they worshipped on outdoor platforms made of dirt or stone. Later, they built temples of wood, mud-brick, and clay on stone foundations, which were usually elaborately coloured and adorned.Soothsayers predicted events and the Etruscans believed in omens which were signs of what was to come. They believed that the destiny of man was completely determined by the many gods and deities which etruscans worshipped. They followed complex rituals involving dancing and singing. A lot of etruscan literature comes from burial remains and tombs. The dead were cremated or buried in cemeteries outside each city. Those that were buried were put into individual tombs(if you were rich) called catacombs and often tombs were filled with works of art and treasures of gold, silver, bronze and ivory.
Outline and evaluate one theory of attachment (12 marks) Bowlbyâ€™s theory is an evolutionary theory because, in his view attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved because of its survival value and, ultimately, its reproductive value. According to Bowlby, children have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver because attachment has long-term benefits. Both attachment and imprinting ensure that a young animal stays close to a caregiver who will feed and protect the young animal.Thus attachment and imprinting are adaptive behaviours. Infants who do not become attached are less likely to survive and reproduce. Attachment â€˜genesâ€™ are perpetuated, and infants are born with an innate drive to become attached. Since attachment is innate, there is likely to be a limited window for its development i. e. a critical or sensitive period. Development of all biological systems takes place most rapidly and easily during a critical period. Bowlby applied the concept of a sensitive period to attachment.He suggested that the second quarter of the first year is when infants are most sensitive to the development of attachments. The drive to provide caregiving is also innate because it is adaptive (i. e. enhances survival of oneâ€™s offspring). Infants are born with certain characteristics, called social releasers, which elicit caregiving. The social releasers include smiling and crying. Another social releaser is a babyâ€™s face. Attachment is the innate behavioural system in babies; caregiving is the response in adults. Both provide protection and thereby enhance survival.The formation of attachments depends on the interaction of these systems. Attachment is important for protection, and thus acts as a secure base from which a child can explore the world and a safe haven to return to when threatened. Thus attachment fosters independence. Bowlby also believed that infants form a number of attachments but one of these has special importance. The bias towards on individual, the primary attachment, is called monotropy. Infants also have other secondary attachment figures that form a hierarchy of attachments.The one special attachment is most usually an infantâ€™s mother. Bowlby believe that sensitive responsiveness was the key â€“ an infant become most strongly attached to the person who responds most sensitively to the infantâ€™s social releasers (the â€˜sensitivityâ€™ hypothesis). This person become the infants primary attachment figure, providing the main foundation for emotional development, self-esteem and later relationships with peers, lovers and oneâ€™s own children. Attachment starts as the relationship between a caregiver and infant.This relationship may be one of trust or of uncertainty and inconsistency, and creates expectations about what all relationships will be like. Gradually the infant develops a model about emotional relationships: Bowlby called this an internal working model. This model is a cluster of concepts about relationships and what to expect from others â€“ about whether relationships involve consistent or inconsistent love, whether others make you feel good or anxious, and so on. The internal working model means there is consistency between early emotional experiences and later relationships.This leads to the continuity hypothesis â€“ the view that there is a link between the early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour; individuals who are securely attached in infancy continue to be socially and emotionally competent, whereas insecurely attached children have more social and emotional difficulties late in childhood and adulthood. The research by Lorenz supports the view that imprinting is innate because the goslings imprinted on the first moving object they saw. A similar process is likely to have evolved in many species as a mechanism to protect young animals and enhance the likelihood of their survival.If attachments fail to develop, the conclusion from research appears to be that once the sensitive period has passed it is difficult to form attachments. For example, Hodges and Tizard found that children who had formed no attachments had later difficulties with peers. If attachment did evolve, as Bowlby suggests, to provide an important biological function, then we would expect attachment and care giving behaviours to be universal i. e. found in all cultures. Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe, the Efe, from Zaire, who live in extended family groups.The infants are looked after and even breastfed by different women but usually sleep with their own mother at night. Despite such differences in childrearing practices the infants, at six months, still showed one primary attachment. This supports the view that attachment and caregiving are universal and not influenced by different cultural practices. Many psychologists have criticised Bowlbyâ€™s ideas regarding montropy and argued that the babiesâ€™ attachment to the first attachment figure is not necessarily special or unique.Schaffer and Emersonâ€™s longitudinal study of 60 Glasgow babies found that multiple attachments seemed to be the norm for babies rather than the exception â€“ at the age of 18 months 87% of babies had multiple attachments. Schaffer and Emerson also found that the strongest bond was not necessarily to the mother as Bowlby had implied. At 18 moths, only half of the samples were strongly attached to their mothers and about a third were strongly attached to their fathers.Bowlbyâ€™s ideas about the importance of attachments have produced substantial amount of research. Most evidence suggests that early attachment experiences can have an influenced on later adult relationships. However, it is important not to overestimate this influence and to consider other factors such as later life events, which influence adult relationships. Bowlbyâ€™s idea regarding monotropy has been challenged and evidence supports the view that multiple attachments may be the rule rather than single and unique attachments.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.